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Decker et al. These definitions are still widely used as a framework in hunter research. Despite insight from these and similar studies, most hunter satisfactions research has limitations e. First, examinations are typically focused on a single type of hunting in one geographic area e. Second, past research on hunter satisfactions has primarily involved questionnaires or surveys, using a Likert scale or similar method e. This can introduce difficulties when analyzing subconscious attitudes. Specifically, responses may be influenced or limited by question structure, existing social tensions, pressure, stigma, or the comfort level of the interviewee or respondent Marra et al.

Third, past hunter satisfactions research has been developed primarily with data concerning ungulate hunting e. As a result, we know little about how hunter satisfactions might differ when carnivores are targeted. This gap persists despite carnivores being subject to high kill rates and associated with conservation concern Darimont et al.

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Additionally, carnivores possess ecological and behavioral characteristics that generally make them more difficult to kill than ungulates, which could influence associated hunter satisfaction levels Child and Darimont Addressing these limitations, recent research has studied hunter satisfactions using an innovative data source: social media. For example, Child and Darimont investigated multiple satisfactions of trophy hunters by analyzing facial expressions of hunters when posing with their prey, using photos collected from online forums and other websites.

Complementing this work, we demonstrate how online forums can provide a rich source of qualitative data. Specifically, online forums allow researchers to access sensitive content e. We used this novel data source to study underexamined dimensions of hunter satisfactions. Instead of making explicit predictions, however, we adopted an inductive approach. We collected data from 3 online hunting forums: HuntingBC.

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We selected forums to examine based on 1 membership; 2 login requirements; 3 target species variation; and 4 geographic location. Finally, to avoid results that were regionally specific, we selected forums that were based in geographic areas with potentially different hunting norms, target species, wildlife management policies, and other factors. We elected not to include comparative analyses between geographic regions in our results because of the inability to differentiate between forum members that were born in, resided in, or were merely visitors in each region or forum.

We analyzed stories for content across 3 forums, each detailing 1 hunt HuntingBC. We selected thread categories for story collection if their titles included the following topics: big game, carnivores, deer—ungulates, exotics, predator—varmint hunting, or bow hunting. Within these categories, we assessed 5, individual thread titles e. We assumed titles represented primary thread content. We examined the original i. We did not examine replies to original stories.

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Moreover, we excluded all stories written by individuals under 18 years of age, stories with ambiguous language bad grammar, evident sarcasm, other possibilities for misinterpretation , or stories detailing another hunter's experience. In cases where the same individual posted multiple stories on a forum, we analyzed the story that was best suited for coding e.

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After all exclusions, the remaining stories contained targeting ungulates and 76 targeting carnivores. Using Decker et al. Once all stories were coded, we analyzed them for dominant satisfactions occurring most frequently per story , proportion of phrases per satisfaction across all stories , and multiple satisfactions per story.

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We ran a matrix query in NVivo to observe the frequency with which satisfactions occurred within each of the stories, and assigned each story with one dominant satisfaction achievement, affiliation, appreciation. We ran a second matrix query to observe total number of phrases per satisfaction across all ungulate and carnivore stories, and identified stories with multiple satisfactions.

Phrases were organized by each party into the satisfaction categories of achievement, affiliation, and appreciation. An additional third party then compared these answers with the originals to determine coding precision. Whereas we believe that online forums are a rich and valuable resource that can provide new insight into hunter satisfactions research, we recognize that they may introduce new forms of bias to the field. Similarly, it is possible that people who generally exhibit higher levels of narcissism may be predisposed to post on forums. We speculate that this would mostly influence achievement satisfactions, because there is likely less incentive to share affiliation and appreciation satisfactions with peers. However, individuals might simultaneously experience a heightened sense of affiliation and appreciation due to their participation in online forums, because positive feedback and reinforcement can increase these satisfactions Deci Additionally, because an internet connection is required, membership of online forums may not accurately represent hunters located in rural areas.

Demographic factors such as age could also result in skewed hunter representation.

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Distinct patterns emerged from our analyses. We found that achievement was the primary dominant satisfaction expressed in online hunting stories, both when ungulates and carnivores were targeted Fig. There was no pronounced difference in affiliation satisfactions between stories targeting ungulates versus carnivores. When inspecting the proportion of phrases coded for each satisfaction across all stories, several of the above patterns persisted Fig.

Our innovative research method provides a new approach that contributes to hunter satisfactions literature. With the rapid rise in communication through social media, and associated data availability Barbier , we suspect that other researchers might adopt a similar approach to complement or replace more traditional interview and survey methodologies. Future research should, however, proceed with caution. As noted, online forum users might be neither broadly representative of the population of interest nor behave in ways that characterize typical behavior.

Despite these limitations, the widespread prominence of achievement in our results supports patterns seen in previous research, suggesting achievement is either the most common or the most influential hunter satisfaction Decker et al. If our data are broadly representative of the general hunting population, our analyses suggest that ignoring achievement in wildlife management would have significant consequences.

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For example, in cases where achievement scales positively with target species size, newly imposed size restrictions on a species may cause hunter contentment to decline Child and Darimont Such regulations limiting achievement satisfactions may thus encourage hunter opposition toward wildlife management policies Miller and Graefe Similarly, acknowledging and incorporating achievement satisfactions into wildlife management may increase support for new and existing policies. Hence, management goals for larger and healthier targets could garner hunter support as well as play a role in other management prescriptions e.

The more pronounced prominence of achievement we observed in carnivore stories, coupled with fewer mentions of other satisfactions, provides important insight into the differences between hunters or hunts that target these different taxa. Greater difficulty and price associated with carnivore hunting may explain why achievement of a successful kill or disappointment in a failed hunt may be relatively more important than intrinsic nonmaterial; i.

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Fish and Wildlife Service and U. Census Bureau , Child and Darimont Owing to these differences, we speculate that management policies designed using data from ungulate hunting studies may be less effective if implemented for carnivore hunting. Recognizing achievement satisfactions may be particularly important when designing carnivore management policy. For example, when concerning carnivore species that are of conservation concern as well as commonly hunted as a trophy e. An example of a similar paradigm that has been successfully implemented is that used by Ducks Unlimited.

Founded in by waterfowl hunters and with a continually large hunter member base, much of Ducks Unlimited's work is geared toward protecting wetland habitat to increase duck and geese Anatidae populations to improve and sustain waterfowl numbers for hunting Duffus Our results also provide new insight into the prevalence of multiple satisfactions among hunters. We found that achievement, appreciation, and affiliation were all present in stories exhibiting multiple satisfactions more often than was any exclusive satisfaction pair.

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We speculate that even when not explicitly stated in stories, these intrinsic satisfactions play a crucial role in enhancing the hunting experience and reinforcing external tangible; i. For example, a hunt that ends with the kill of a large deer achievement might bring more satisfaction if spent surrounded by beautiful scenery appreciation and in the company of friends or family affiliation than if the location were less beautiful and time spent alone, even if the end kill result of the hunt were the same. Whereas it has long been suggested that intrinsic satisfactions appreciation and affiliation play a role in most hunting experiences even when achievement is dominant Deci , the contrast exhibited in our results between all satisfactions versus only one satisfaction predominantly achievement being addressed is a new and meaningful finding.

This suggests that although most hunters can be satisfied by multiple factors, achievement satisfactions have the strongest ability to cause other satisfactions to fade when describing hunts. We speculate that this could be a result of 1 the social recognition often associated with successful harvest achievement; Smith et al.

We recommend further research into the specifics of these satisfaction categories to gain a deeper understanding of hunter satisfactions and correlating motivating factors. Even without further investigation, we suggest that the adoption of hunter education or outreach programs that encourage multiple satisfactions could be valuable in increasing the enjoyment of the hunt experience as well as increasing hunter satisfaction at the outcome.

For example, a recent analysis of ethical hunting tenets within hunter education manuals and nongovernmental organization NGO statements found that only NGO texts promoted being motivated to hunt by personal relationships with nature Peterson Furthermore, we speculate that excluding appreciation and affiliation satisfactions from wildlife management considerations would have a substantial impact on the contentment of a wide range of hunters, which could in turn influence rates of hunter initiation, continuation, and desertion.

For example, a common complaint of hunters is overcrowding or lack of privacy at hunt locations Shelby and Vaske , which directly influences appreciation satisfactions. Taking this into consideration by designating and protecting more wildlife management areas could improve overall hunter satisfaction as well as provide more habitat for wildlife and ecosystem conservation of target and nontarget species. If hunting satisfactions expressed in online stories represent those experienced by hunters more broadly, our results could offer significant insight into wildlife management.

For example, goals to develop quality habitat could see improved success if also designed with hunter satisfactions in mind, such as promoting larger target species achievement or hunter privacy appreciation. If wildlife managers are looking to increase hunter contentment, our results suggest that designing regulations that focus on achievement satisfactions would be particularly successful. Hunter education and outreach programs could be used to further instill a sense of importance and acknowledgement of intrinsic satisfactions.

Additionally, our results indicate that understanding satisfaction differences between ungulate and carnivore hunts is likely important to wildlife management outcomes.

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More research, however, is needed on carnivore hunter satisfactions. Moreover, we acknowledge that the currently accepted hunter satisfaction categories achievement, affiliation, appreciation are exceptionally broad, especially regarding achievement. Achievement satisfactions resulting from trophy and meat hunting, for example, are likely vastly different.

Finally, we suggest that these and other research questions might be addressed at least in part using online forums, which can provide an important data source with which wildlife management scholars and practitioners can interact. We thank K. Child, D. Duffus, M.

Adams, A. Fleerackers, and A. Schuld for comments and feedback on earlier drafts, as well as B. Graham and J. We thank Associate Editor M. Nils Peterson and peer reviewers for their valuable contributions to our manuscript. Supporting information includes a table outlining the hierarchical categorization structure of satisfactions, subcategories, and codes used to categorize phrases from hunting stories across all 3 online forums. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors.

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